Asgard, in Norse mythology, the dwelling place of the Aesir gods. According to Snorri Sturluson, author of the 'Prose (or Younger) Edda', Asgard was the last place created by the gods, after they made the earth, seas, sky, Jotunheim (Giantland), Midgard (Middle Earth, which would become the home of the humans), and clouds.
Asgard was a giant fortress set on steep cliffs rising from the center of the world. All the gods and their descendants lived there. It was thought of as a towering citadel running up from Midgard, its walls so high that they disappeared into the clouds. Asgard had to be very tall to keep it safe from encroachment and from invasion by the gods enemies, the frost giants.
In Asgard was the throne of the king of the gods, Odin. This throne was called Hlidskjalf, and it was set in a beautiful meadow called Idavoll. Idavoll, is where the Aesir meet to decide important issues. There the gods assemble in the hall of Gladsheim and the goddesses in the hall of Vingolf. The gods also meet daily at the Well of Urd, beneath the Asgard root of the ash tree Yggdrasil. A hall called Valaskjalf, made of shining silver, was built to surround the throne. When Odin sat on Hlidskjalf, he could see the panorama of the entire world, heavenand earth, and everything that occurred everywhere.
There was also a magnificent hall, made entirely of pure gold, called Gladsheim (Glittering Home, the great hall of the gods in the heavenly realm of Asgard. It was erected soon after the building of Asgard was completed. At that time the chief of the gods, Odin, established rulers to decide the destinies of men. In the center of Asgard was a place called Idavoll. The first act of the rulers was to build a temple at that spot for all their thrones to stand in: twelve thrones in addition to the throne of Odin. They called this structure Gladsheim. According to the 'Prose (or Younger) Edda', "This building is the best that was built on Earth and the biggest." It was made of gold, both inside and out. A separate hall called Vingolf was built for the sanctuary of the goddesses.) . In Gladsheim were thrones for Odin and for the 12 highest gods. Vingolf, the hall of friendship, was the hall of the goddesses. Every day, the gods and goddesses would gather in Asgard at their judgment seat at the Well of Urd, to meet and discuss what was going on in the world and what, if anything, they should do about it.
The largest and most famous building in Asgard was Valhalla, the banquet hall. Here Odin held feasts where the Aesir and the Einherjar, the souls of the warriors who had died a courageous death in battle, would eat together in fellowship and merriment. Valholl, the Old Icelandic term for Valhalla, means "hall of the slain." There were two significant barriers to the entryways of Valhalla: Thund, a roaring river, and Valgrind, a barred gate. The hall itself was so large that according to some accounts it had 540 doors. Each of these doors was so wide that armies of warriors could march between its portals 800 abreast. (In other accounts, Valhalla had as many as 640 doors, each wide enough to accommodate 960 warriors.) Odin's maidens, the Valkyries, would gather the souls of these valiant warriors who had been true to Odin as they fell on the battlefields, and bring them to Valhalla. The slain men would be able to recognize the enormous hall as they flew toward it by its rafters made of spears, and its roof tiles made of shields. Inside, the benches of the long banquet tables were covered with coats of mail.
To reach Asgard, one had to travel over Bifrost,heaven to Earth, or the realm of the gods (Asgard) to the realm of mankind, Midgard. Built by the gods, it was also called As-bridge. It was of three colors, and the red in it was of burning fire. Every day the gods rode over Bifrost to the place where they held court together--except for the thunder god, Thor, who was so strong and hearty that he simply waded across the deep waters that separated the two realms. Bifrost was the strongest bridge ever built; nevertheless, it was believed that at Ragnarok, the great battle at the end of the world, the frost giants would ride over Bifrost to attack Asgard, and at that fateful time, since nothing in the world would be secure, the bridge would break. The god Heimdall kept watch from his home, Himinbjorg, near the bridge, to guard the entrance to the bridge and warn the gods when the frost giants were on their way. the rainbow bridge that connected the realm of the gods to Midgard, the home of humans