Vanir, in Norse mythology, one of the two principal races of gods. Stories of the other main race, the warlike Aesir, have predominated in the Norse mythology that has come down through the 'Poetic (or Elder) Edda' and 'Prose (or Younger) Edda'. The Vanir, who were associated more with agriculture, are therefore less well known than the Aesir. Although they were subordinated to the Aesir, however, the Vanir are believed to have predated the Aesir.
The Vanir gods and goddesses included Boda, Bil, Eir, Fimila, Fjorgyn, Freya, Frimla, Fulla, Gefjon, Gerda, Gna, Hnossa, Horn, Njord, Saga, Sit, Siguna, and Vanadis. The goddesses Frigg and Nanna were both Vanir, though they were married to the Aesir gods Odin and Balder. Skadi, wife of Njord, is counted among the Vanir although she was the daughter of a giant. Some scholars believe that the word Scandinavia comes from Skadi.
The dwelling place of the Vanir was Vanaheim. There they ruled over the powers of nature, wealth, fertility, and trade. It has been suggested that the peoples among whom the Vanir gods originated were seafarers, since many of the Vanir had special connections with the sea.
According to tradition, long ago the Aesir and the Vanir fought a war. In one account, the war began when the Vanir attacked the Aesir because the Aesir had tortured the goddess Gullveig, a Vanir priestess or sorceress. The outraged Vanir demanded monetary satisfaction or equal status as gods. But the Aesir refused and declared war on the Vanir. Both sides fought bravely, but despite their prowess in combat, the Aesir suffered numerous defeats. Most accounts say that the war ended in a truce when neither side could score a decisive victory.
It was agreed that to make peace, each side would take hostages from the other. Thus the Aesir gods Hoenir and Mimir were sent to live among the Vanir, while the Vanir god Njord and his two children, Frey and Freya, settled among the Aesir. Afterwards, these Vanir gods were to be associated with the Aesir.
Peace was symbolically restored by a ritual in which both sides spit into Odherir, a magic cauldron, mingling their saliva. Out of their combined spittle, a poet-god named Kvasir formed, who was the wisest of the wise. In some accounts Kvasir was killed by dwarfs; in others, he was himself a dwarf. His blood was mixed with honey, and a magical mead resulted that inspired anyone who drank it to speak with poetry and wisdom.